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A definite and conclusive credo was never formulated in Judaism; the very question whether it contains any equivalent of dogma is a matter of intense scholarly controversy.
Some researchers attempted to argue that the importance of daily practice and punctilious adherence to Jewish Law (Halakha) relegated theoretical issues to an ancillary status.
Soloveitchik, who was deeply influenced by Neo-Kantian ideals.
On the fringes of Orthodoxy, thinkers who were at least (and according to their critics, only) sociologically part of it, ventured toward radical models.
For example, while Maimonides stated in his writings (and his explanation was very much controversial) that the Garden of Eden is a location on earth that will be recovered, the term Gehinnom ("Hell") referred to punishment in this world, and that only the soul of the righteous shall survive and delight in bliss.
Nahmanides offered a more comprehensive system, with divine remuneration for better or worse both in this world, via natural means, and in a celestial heaven and hell.
Maimonides delineated this understanding of a monotheistic, personal God in six articles concerning His status as the sole Creator, His oneness, His impalpability, that He is first and last, that God alone may be worshiped, and no other being, and that He is omniscient.
At a time when excessive contemplation in matters of belief was associated with secularization, luminaries such as Israel Meir Kagan stressed the importance of simple, unsophisticated commitment to the precepts passed down from the Beatified Sages.
This is still the standard in the ultra-Orthodox world.
In more open Orthodox circles, attempts were made to formulate philosophies that would confront modern sensibilities.
Notable examples are the Hegelian-Kabbalistic theology of Abraham Isaac Kook, who viewed history as progressing toward a Messianic redemption in a dialectic fashion which required the strengthening of heretical forces, or the existentialist thought of Joseph B.